Magento is an open-source content management system for e-commerce web sites. The software was originally developed by Varien Inc., a US private company headquartered in Culver City, California, with assistance from volunteers.
According to research conducted by aheadWorks in October 2014, Magento's market share among the 30 most popular e-commerce platforms is about 30%.
Magento employs the MySQL relational database management system, the PHP programming language, and elements of the Zend Framework. It applies the conventions of object-oriented programming and model-view-controller architecture. Magento also uses the entity–attribute–value model to store data.
Magento Community Edition
Magento Community Edition is an open-source content-management system. Anyone can modify the core system. Developers can implement the core files and extend its functionality by adding new plug-in modules provided by other developers.
Magento Enterprise Edition
Magento Enterprise Edition is derived from the Magento Community Edition and has the same core files. Unlike Community Edition, this is not free, but has more features and functionality. This edition is designed for large businesses that require technical support with installation, usage, configuration, and troubleshooting. Although Magento Enterprise has annual maintenance fees, neither Community nor Enterprise Editions include hosting. The Magento team develops Enterprise Edition by cooperating with users and third parties.
Magento Go is a cloud-based eCommerce solution, which also includes web hosting by Magento Inc. This was launched in February 2011 in order to support small businesses as it has no need for software installation. Magento Go still has built-in modules and can add Magento extensions for more functionality, but is also the least customizable platform.
Magento provides a basic theme which sets up an ecommerce website. The theme is designed for customizing all pages by adding or editing the PHP, HTML and CSS. Magento users may install themes which change the display of the website or its functionality. Without loss of content or layout of pages, themes are interchangeable with Magento installations. Themes are installed by uploading theme folders via FTP or SSH and applying them using the backend admin system.
Magento developers have created Magento plugins which extend its basic built-in functionality. Magento users can install modules by downloading them, and uploading them to their server, or applying a module's Extension Key through Magento Connect Manager.
Magento allows users to integrate several different domain names into one control panel and manage more than one storefront at a time from a single admin panel.
Sources taken from:- Wikipedia.org